By Francis Katamba
This booklet is an creation to phonological concept positioned in the framework of modern mainstream generative phonology. The booklet is split into major elements. the 1st introduces readers to simple ideas of articulatory phonetics, classical phonemics and conventional generative phonology. the second one half is dedicated to phonological thought. the character and organization of phonological representations in nonlinear generative phonology is usually explored.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Phonology (Learning About Language)
I quote Halle and Clements (1983:7) who give this cautious definition: 'Tense vowels are produced with a tongue body or tongue root configuration involving a greater degree of constriction than that found in their lax counterparts; this greater degree of constriction is usually accompanied by greater length. (Tense vowels vs. ' The English 'long' vowels and diphthongs [i, a, 0, u, ei, ai, oi, au, ju] are tense while the 'short' vowels [1, e, se, u, A, D] are lax. 5 Laryngeal features 14. SPREAD GLOTTIS - NONSPREAD GLOTTIS [± spread] Pushing the vocal cords wide apart augments the airflow through the glottis and inhibits voicing.
Furthermore, it was criticised for using the same phonological feature to characterise phonological oppositions which in some cases were manifested by different phonetic properties. For instance, if a sound was described as GRAVE (which means that most of the acoustic energy used in its production is concentrated in the lower part of the spectrum) you would not be able to tell whether it was a labial like [p], or a velar like [g], since the acoustically defined phonological property GRAVE could be correlated with either labial or velar articulation.
4 Tongue root features The vocal tract is a long tube with holes at both the lip end and the throat end. The shape of this tube can be modified by rounding the lips and making them protrude - and thus elongating the tube. Alternatively, the tongue root position can be adjusted by pushing it forward or retracting it so that the vocal tract is either lengthened or shortened. Either of these actions has the effect of modifying the shape of the resonating chamber in the vocal tract in much the same way as differences in size and shape of wind instruments affect the notes which they produce.