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Extra resources for Advances in Energy Systems and Technology. Volume 3
Historically, West Virginia and Kentucky have provided the bulk of the Devonian shale gas production. 9 Tcf of gas have been discovered from the Devonian shales (American Petroleum Institute, 1979). Annually, an estimated 100 B C F of natural gas is produced from the Devonian shales. Whether the gas resource is the gas adsorbed in the shale matrix, the free gas in the fracture system, or both, the Devonian shales can be an important source of natural gas, particularly for the Appalachian region.
The experience to date in lenticular tight gas reservoirs is exemplified by attempts by an independent producer to recover gas from the lenticular Almond and Erickson sands of the Upper Mesaverde in the Barrel Springs Field of the Greater Green River Basin. After three years of detailed analysis of nine wells, the engineering consultants retained by the producers reached the following conclusions (Wanner et al. 010 Average of 22 treatments Effective fracture length (ft) Designed fracture length (ft) Fracture efficiency 50 400 150 550 200 1000 500 1000 400 200 300 350 125 200 100 500 600 400 750 950 700 400 400 700 640 900 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 700 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 800 13 57 23 61 13 67 33 67 27 13 20 23 8 13 7 71 60 40 75 95 70 50 (%) 40% Unconventional Natural Gas 53 Nearly two thirds of the pay targeted for stimulation was not fractured and did not contribute to production.
The Devonian shales are both the reservoir and the seal. While some gas has migrated to adjacent sandstone rocks to form gas reservoirs in the Appalachian Basin, much of the gas has remained trapped in the shales. The main production has been from areas with large natural fracture systems. The surface structure of the Appalachian Basin is characterized by a vast area of broad surface folds, many of which occurred during the late Paleozoic period, although additional basement deformation occurred in early Cambrian time.