By Eldon G. Lytle
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Additional info for A Grammar of Subordinate Structures in English
The Greek letters are variable over the values + and - . Variable specifications convert to + or - by virtue of their presence or absence in the referent. The above formula expresses the lexical relationship in its most general form. It is assumed that blocks of rules of the type illustrated in Appendix I implement lexical realization, since word order and placement of affixes must also be accounted for. 20 I must admit that certain reservations lurk in my mind with respect to COMPETENCE and PERFORMANCE and their application to linguistic research.
The reader may apply 1ST for himself to verify the subordinate status of adverbial relatives. There are other constructions corresponding to the morphological contour of adverbial modifiers which are more difficult to analyze: Uncle Tom sells shoes, like Daddy works at the office. Although sentences like this strike one as being of marginal grammaticality, they are not uncommon in colloquial speech. Their peculiarity stems from the lack of any apparent antecedent in the main clause.
The only apparent exceptions to the rule are (1) where there is verbatim repetition of the restrictive(s) first used to identify the referent; or (2) where intervening discourse creates a need for reacquiring referential focus: (4a) The Smiths have a boy who is ten and a boy who is six. (4b) The boy who is ten, who delivers our paper, is named Fred. (4c) The boy who is ten who delivers our paper is named Fred. (4d) The Smith boy whom I mentioned who is ten * See Kuroda, 1968,254-255, regarding DEFINITIZATION, which is related if not identical to what we have termed NONRESTRICTIVIZATION.